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We would like to call readers’ attention to an interesting article (in Italian) with the title “Dal Madeinitaly al BrandItalia: una storia italiana”. We would like to deal with this issue in greater depth by starting a discussion on the Domus Aurea Worksite as a possible symbol of a new way of understanding “Italian value” that is not a function “only” of its immense cultural heritage and its infinite potential for exploitation but, especially in the eyes of the world, of a coherent and complex set of cultural, technical, scientific and entrepreneurial skills that, by ensuring its conservation, can contribute to the development and recognition of our national identity.
These concepts were clearly expressed, quoting Article 9 of the Italian Constitution, by the Italian Constitutional Court in a ruling of 1986 referring to the “primacy” of aesthetic and cultural value, which cannot be subordinated to other values, including economic ones; rather, it notes that the economy itself should draw inspiration from culture as a mark of its Italian identity. The promotion of knowledge and the safeguard of artistic heritage are not therefore just one activity ‘among the many’ for the Italian Republic but are enshrined in the Constitution and Italy’s millennial identity as a fundamental, public and inalienable mission (drawn from a speech made in 2003 by the then President of the Republic C. A. Ciampi (http://www.quirinale.it/Discorsi/Discorso.asp?id=22144).
Can the Domus Aurea, thanks to our Worksite aimed at its physical and cultural rehabilitation, become a symbol of a new Italian Renaissance for the second time in its history? If the answer is yes, would it not be worth guaranteeing its completion at all costs, precisely to suggest a new path towards the genuine rehabilitation of our country?
Work to secure, protect and rehabilitate Room 34 is now complete.
The most important interventions were the closure of a large gap in the outer façade of the Domus, alongside some minor work to protect and secure wall fragments, wall faces and parts of the wall structures.
Rotation of the Façade Towards the Outside
The detailed and extensive checks on the consistency of the walls and the brick courses allowed us to determine that the rotation of the wall had stabilized; we therefore decided to intervene in accordance with the project guidelines and “repair” the structure without using processes or materials that would in any way “alter” the nature of the wall; using natural limes and binders allowed us to achieve the desired consistency and safety levels.
The Closure of the Gap in the Wall Measuring About 20 m2
One of the first features to strike us was the quality of the ancient wall faces and cores. A lack of care in the choice of bricks used to build the walls and the laying of the courses was immediately apparent; the size and quality of the bricks, and the uneven courses, characterize the whole façade of the Domus Aurea; by contrast, the wall cores were made using whole or fragmentary bricks rather than the far more common little tufa blocks, bound with high quality mortars that ensured the high resistance of the walls, no thicker than 70-75 cm.
The use of non-shrink mortars and triangular bricks (which ensure a better adherence between wall face and core) completed reconstruction and consolidation work; the empty hole was finally closed.
Construction of a Counter-Vault
The close-up examination of the structural consistency of the vault over Room 34 allowed us to ascertain the extent of the damage caused by rainwater in this part of the Domus Aurea.
The studies immediately carried out on the impost of the vault were alarming: specifically, the mortars and especially the tufa blocks forming the vaulted structure had been reduced to the consistency of sand.
More specifically, the entire back part of the vault, for about a quarter of its length, was compromised making it essential to intervene immediately.
The structural project indicated the type and characteristics of the intervention, which was carried out at once.
Furthermore, the close-up examination of the decayed portions of the walls and the imposts in the rest of Room 34 led us to another unanimous decision: to extend the protective structure to the rest of the room to ensure the necessary safety levels.
Securing of Decorations and Stucco
We were only able to access the upper part of the room after erecting scaffolding; here we noted the presence, in a room of the Domus that was apparently not of primary importance, of some surviving fragments of fine stucco wall decorations, almost completely covered by the concretions that formed the room during many centuries of percolation and that we had to detach from the wall before proceeding with the construction of the counter-vault.
The last few days have been cold and rainy. The size and solidity of the large hangar covering about 800 m2 of the Park on the Oppian Hill are striking: it looks like a place untouched by the bad weather. And it is.
The new year began with a novelty for the Domus Aurea and for our team: our Director, Fedora Filippi, is now enjoying her well-earned pension! Fedora, widely known for her enormous scholarly competence, has also been for us an example of honesty, dedication to her work, and tenacity in achieving results and objectives. To her we also owe the idea for this blog, allowing the general public to keep up-to-date on the work and projects of our diverse team, and its publication; we hope she will continue to work on it. We are all sure that Fedora will not abandon the Domus Aurea, but that, albeit in different ways, she will continue to offer her scholarly contribution to the works and projects that she helped to shape and that we all share. The new Director of the monument is Ida Sciortino, who has been a member of the Domus Aurea staff for over twenty years and who has a profound knowledge of the monument and the complex problems it faces; readers will already be familiar with her as the coordinator of this blog and the authors of several articles.
We do not want to say goodbye to Fedora but “see you soon”, wishing her every happiness in her new life, and to Ida a warm welcome and “good luck”!
We have worked hard, but are extremely pleased with the result. On Sunday morning before 9, the first visitors were already outside the gate. They didn’t have long to wait: after putting on their yellow hard hats they entered for the first visit at 9.15, accompanied by their guides. The same scene was repeated throughout Sunday: all the visits were sold out and many of the visitors were foreign. We have a feeling that our objective of opening the monument/worksite to the general public was a good idea. The visitors were certainly impressed by the Domus Aurea, for its magnificence and the fascination that in spite of everything it has exerted since the Renaissance, but they were also very attentive to the problems that we face during our rehabilitation work, explained along the route. Continue reading
At present, the Domus Aurea consists of a complex underground structure above which lies the Oppian Hill park with the visible remains of the Baths of Trajan.
The rooms that previously belonged to Nero’s vast palace, originally designed as an overground complex, are now concealed by the park and have thus become subterranean structures, though they were not intended to be so.
Holes in the vaults and apertures in the vaults have formed preferential paths for the percolation of water and caused the structures to become far weaker than they originally were.
Examples of these situations, widespread throughout the monument, can be found in Room 33, where rebuilding and conservation work has already taken place, in Gallery 20E and Room 94.
Numerous attempts have been made to waterproof the ancient structures to intercept rainwater and prevent it seeping into the underground monument, though these have covered limited areas.
We have recently completed the Definitive Project for the rehabilitation of the area above the Domus Aurea.
It is obvious that water infiltration, resulting from increasingly frequent heavy rains, continues to cause damage to the monument, even in areas where the conservation of internal surfaces is underway and where work has already been completed.
Considering the importance and urgency of limiting the percolation of water into the monument, in order to reduce the risk of compromising the conservation work already undertaken, the continuation of planned interventions and the potential opening of a limited area of the monument to visitors, we are in the process of laying a drainage layer on the surface of the park above the Domus Aurea.
The aim of this intervention is to significantly reduce the intensity of surface water percolation rapidly and at modest expense before the autumn rains that usually affect Rome in the first third of November.
We aim to achieve this objective by draining the surface waters in a way that does not hinder or endanger the work underway in the park.
We believe that draining 50% of rainwater is sufficient to re-establish a degree of security, or at least to slow down the decay of structures and paintings sufficiently for the definitive project, in the form of the Integrated Protection System, to be “in time”.
Drainage will be achieved by laying a geocomposite in a channel just over 4 metres wide, at the centre of which will be a drainage tube supported by gravel, with a gradient of 0.5%. The drainage geocomposite and the tube will be buried by the earth dug out, so as to ensure that the surface is passable as at present, allowing spontaneous plants to grow.
The depth of the geocomposite varies from a minimum of 20 cm to a maximum of 80 cm, whilst that of the drainage tube ranges from a minimum of 0.50 to a maximum of 1.20 metres. The tube will have a diameter of 160 mm for the first 20 metres and subsequently of 200 mm; it will flow into the park’s sewer system.
The purpose of the geocomposite is to drain and filter rainwater. It consists of a three-dimensional polyamide core, heat-treated to give it a v-shape configuration, particularly suited to resisting the confining pressures exerted by the surrounding soil, enclosed in two non-woven heat-sealed filters integral with the drainage core. The geocomposite chosen has a vertical transmissivity (hydraulic gradient i = 1) at 20 kPa of no less than 2.5 l/s m (equal to 9000 l/hm).
Rainwater seeps into the ground vertically. When it meets the drainage geocomposite it will tend to flow into it, as the resistance to motion is several degrees of magnitude lower than the surrounding soil, where a small quantity of water will nonetheless remain. The water will thus drain away inside the geocomposite until it reaches the drainage pipe that channels the water towards the sewer system. The route of the drainage pipe may run through highly permeable soils or soils with voids or fractures, where the water collected may percolate downwards, thus compromising drainage and making the concentration of water created by the drainage process dangerous. To avoid this, a geosynthetic liner with an impermeable outer membrane will be laid next to and underneath the drainage pipe, so as to form a waterproof channel through which water can pass only in the direction of the pipe before being discharged into the sewer. Building this system over the 16,000 m2 of the Oppian Hill above the Domus has a high cost in terms of time and expenditure. We have thus opted for a compromise, implementing these drainage systems over about 20% of the surface. However, the system can be extended to complement the work already carried out without compromising its effectiveness.
Drainage far exceeding 20% of surface water can be achieved by adopting some expedients such as digging a dense network of small drainage channels about 7 metres long, with a slope of 1%, a depth of 20 cm and a very low side gradient of 1/3 (18°). These small channels, which will not hinder movements on the surface, will run into the main drainage system; where the two systems meet small drainage pipes will be placed crosswise in the main channel to facilitate the capture of the waters collected on the surface.
These expedients will allow us to capture more rainwater, especially during very heavy and prolonged rains.
We should also consider that when large quantities of water are not captured by these systems, soaking the soil and thus creating a suspended water table, when the latter comes into contact with the underneath of the geocomposite it will be drained away. In this case, the system behaves like a drainage ditch.
All these considerations allow us to estimate that over 50% of rainwater will be drained away, especially during heavy and prolonged rains, which represent the greatest danger.
Finally, we should stress that not using waterproof sheaths helps transpiration and prevents the soil rotting, since it remains naturally aerated as before the implementation of the system; the capillary fringe is not significantly affected.
The drainage system is subdivided into 14 drainage channels positioned so that progress in building the 22 drainage basins belonging to the Definitive Project does not compromise the effectiveness of the channels not directly affected by this work.
The quantity of water drained by each channel will be measured to evaluate the efficiency of the drainage system.
Work has already begun and is scheduled for completion by the end of this October.
After the Press conference on 18 June 2014 at which we presented the Definitive Project for the new park above the Domus Aurea, we continued with the Pilot Worksite for the construction of the first of the 22 basins of the Integrated Protection System.
We have had direct experience on several occasions over the past few years of the detrimental effects of torrential rains in Rome and, more specifically, the hindrances caused to the good progress of work inside the monument by the most recent “cloud burst” last February. This forced us to suspend the worksites for safety reasons and has led to the decision to implement a “Provisional drainage layer”, designed by Vincenzo Angeloro, the hydraulic engineer of the main “Domus Aurea Project” design team, with the collaboration of our staff (in particular Maurizio Pesce, the Technical Coordinator for the monument). This intervention aims to protect the Domus from severe weather events during this extremely delicate phase of its consolidation, considering the long time (at least 4 years) before the definitive project is completed.
During the summer holiday period, we tried to protect the area from the camps set up by homeless people in the park above with a night watch service. However, despite numerous evacuations by the police and the constant maintenance of the fence, which is cut every evening, the situation had not improved when work began. We are confident that when the new fence is built and work is extended to cover the whole of the park, this situation will be definitively resolved.
In the meantime, work inside is proceeding – especially the structural consolidation of the western sector, in the so-called former Little Barracks and Access Gallery 18. We have begun to secure the decorations of Room 116, one of the few to be preserved intact, including its mosaic floor.
We are also in the process of designing new projects which will begin the tender process before the end of the year, in order to plan our work for next year. We have updated the state of progress and the expenditure situation.
The first “Conservation Plan for the Monument” (Preliminary project report and definitive project), developed from an idea by A. Vodret, was drawn up by the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma in March 2011 and written by F. Filippi, A. Vodret, I. Sciortino, E. Segala and M. Pesce. It was then presented to the Technical Committees for Archaeological, Architectural and Landscape Heritage of the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities (MiBAC). Subsequently, those parts of the project concerning the consolidation of structures and decorations, and the tests for the proposed new arrangement of the waterproof roof were launched.